Wind Pressures for Shutters, Windows & Doors

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Description

NEW AND IMPROVED FOR THE 2017 Florida Building Code!

  • Easy Instructions
  • Expanded Zone 4/5 explanations
  • Easier To Read Wind Pressures
  • Digital Seal Ready

These charts are sold as engineered sealed documents and meet the requirements of the selected Florida Building Code (FBC) using “ASD Method” per ASCE 7-10 for the determination of required wind pressures for Components and Cladding. The FBC allows sealed versions of these master plans to be used to submit for a window, door, or shutter with certain limitations as one of three approved methods. These charts are applicable only to 1 or 2 residential family dwellings – not for apartments

Also use our free Wind Pressure Calculator for more precise answers and site specific project orders by clicking here


SUGGESTED WIND VELOCITY REQUIREMENTS:

For permits after January 1st 2018, select code year FBC 6th Edition (2017)

For residential structures (“Risk Category II”) in Broward and Palm Beach Counties, the required wind velocity is 170mph.

For residential structures (“Risk Category II”) in Miami-Dade County, the required wind velocity is 175mph.

If you are near the coast, it’s Exposure ‘D’; inland is Exposure ‘C’

Click here for more information about wind velocity requirements.

Additional wind velocity requirements can be verified by calling your local Building Department.

 


For variations of this plan, click here - select 'Revision To One Of Our Projects' when asked, & reference the MPS SKU number listed herein.

Additional information

Weight 0.16 oz
Dimensions 0.0100 x 8.5000 x 11.0000 in
Code Year

FBC 6th Ed. (2017) (ASCE 7-10)

Wind Speed (mph)

130, 140, 150, 160, 165, 170, 175, 180

Exposure

B, C, D

Roof Height

Up to 60 Feet, Over 60 Feet

K_d (Directionality Factor)

0.85 (most municipalities), 1.0 (Miami)

Plan Type

Wind Pressure Charts

Material

Glass

Plan Designer

Engineering Express

Plan Format

Digitally Sealed File, Sealed Hardcopy

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About ASCE 7’s Directionality Factor Kd

The directionality factor (Kd) used in the ASCE 7 wind load provisions for components and cladding is a load reduction factor intended to take into account the less than 100% probability that the design event wind direction aligns with the worst case building aerodynamics.   Per ASCE 7-10,Section 26.6, the Directionality Factor Kd is defined as a parameter that makes the design more rational by considering the dependencies of the wind speed, the frequency of occurrence of extreme wind and the aerodynamic property on wind direction. The wind Directionality Factor Kd is affected by the frequency of occurrence and the routes of typhoons, climatological factors, large-scale topographic effects and so on.   See Table 26.6-1 below for the Wind Directionality Factors required per structure type. kd values   The question then comes as to whether load combinations exist for windows & doors.  According to a declaratory statement published by the state of Florida, they do exist and the above can be used.   Additionally, Broward County publishes a 'deemed to comply' document inside the HVHZ allowing Kd=0.85 to be used for windows and doors.   Last, ASCE 7-16 has addressed this issue and clarified the use of Kd=0.85 for component and cladding design in a revised table.
 

ASCE 7 Basic Wind Speed

Per definition by ASCE 7-10, Section 26.2 is defined as:   BASIC WIND SPEED (V): Three-second gust speed at 33ft (10m) above the ground in Exposure C (see Exposure Categories) as determined in accordance with ASCE 7-10 Section 26.5.1.   The wind shall be assumed to come from any horizontal direction. The basic wind speed shall be increased where records or experience indicate that the wind speeds are higher than those reflected in ASCE 7-10 Section 26.5.1.   Most local jurisdictions have set their own Basic Wind Speeds. Check out Engineering Express’s Database of Local Windspeeds: EXD4-10 ASCE 7-10 Vult Windspeeds.
 

ASCE 7 Exposure Categories and How Exposure ‘D’ Works

About Exposure D

Exposure 'D' is a multiplier when converting wind velocity to wind pressure that represents coastal areas.  It's used in many formulas in ASCE 7-10 for wind, a larger topic than we can cover here.  Non coastal areas have Exposure categories B and C.  Exposure D is a moving target from the coastline based on several factors, the height of the building in question being a major one. Below is a how to checklist.  Be sure to see our graphic attached for an easier visual representation.   1. CONFIRM SURFACE ROUGHNESS DISTANCE AND THE INITIATION POINT OF EXPOSURE D: The Initiation pPoint (Ip) of Exposure D occurs at the point on land where "Surface Roughness D" prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of 5000 feet minimum. INITIATION POINT (Ip) = SURFACE ROUGHNESS > 5000FT 2. DETERMINE DISTANCE OF STRUCTURE FROM THE INITIATION POINT (Sdist). 3. CONFIRM PRIMARY EXPOSURE D REGION: The primary Exposure D condition occurs (for all structures) from the Exposure D Initiation Point at the directly exposed coastline area, running inland for a distance of 600 feet (Dprimary = 600 FT). IF (Sdist) < (Dprimary) THEN EXPOSURE D APPLIES 4. CONFIRM BUILDING-SPECIFIC EXPOSURE D REGION: A secondary Exposure D condition may occur based on the structure itself. To determine the building-specific Exposure D region, multiply the Mean Roof Height (MRH) of the structure by 20 (Dsecondary=MRH*20). Compare Dsecondary to the Sdist. IF (Sdist) < (Dsecondary) THEN EXPOSURE D APPLIES   [caption id="attachment_20439" align="aligncenter" width="551"]ASCE 7 Exposure D ASCE 7 Exposure D - Click to view or download with the link below[/caption]
 

Other Exposure Categories:

(With excerpts from the ASCE 7-05 Commentary to help explain):
 

Exposure Category A

Exposure A was deleted. Previously, Exposure A was intended for heavily built-up city centers with tall buildings. However, the committee has concluded that in areas in close proximity to tall buildings the variability of the wind is too great, because of local channeling and wake buffeting effects, to allow a special category A to be defined. For projects where schedule and cost permit, in heavily built-up city centers, Method 3 is recommended because this will enable local channeling and wake-buffeting effects to be properly accounted for. For all other projects, Exposure B can be used.
 

Exposure Category B

  Exposure B Example 3     Exposure B Example 2     Exposure B Example 1  

Exposure Category C

  Exposure C Example 2     Exposure C Example 1    

ASCE 7 Wall and Roof Zones Explained

Per ASCE 7-10, buildings are composed of 5 different zones, depending on the wind loading they are subjected to. These zones are defined as follows:   Zone 1: Has the lowest load; this zone accounts for approximately 80% of the roof surface, represented in the interior zones of the roof. Zone 2: Higher loading than Zone 1; this zone accounts for approximately 15% of the roof surface, represented in the perimeter of the roof. Zone 3: Has the highest load; this zone accounts for about 5% of the roof surface, represented the corners of the roof. Zone 4: Any areas between the wall corners that are not included within Zone 5. Zone 5: 10 percent of least horizontal dimension or 0.4h, whichever is smaller, but not less than either 4 percent of least horizontal dimension or 3 ft (0.9 m).   Key Terms and Definitions: Mean Roof Height (h) Least Horizontal Dimension.   The interpretation of zones should be left to a licensed professional engineer when in doubt.  Otherwise, the most critical zone is suggested.   An illustration of where zones are applied comes from ASCE 7 table 30.7-2 for enclosed buildings less than or equal to h = 160'; whereas, each zone is equal to 'a' unless noted otherwise:   ASCE 7 Wind Zone Figure   Below is a video that helps illustrate how the zone 5 vortexes form and how to better understand the theory of the zone 5 effect.  Keep in mind when watching that the wind has to come from an opposing direction (all structures are analyzed with wind approaching from all angles), and create the turbulent effects in the video.  Areas protected from the turbulent effect are generally not wind zone 5.     Additionally per AAMA TIR A-15-14, zones can be further defined as:   AAMA TIR A15-14 End Zone Figure
 

ASCE 7 Least Horizontal Dimension

The Least Horizontal Dimension can be taken as the shortest possible distance that can be taken between two parallel lines that fully encompass the building The Least Horizontal Dimension is further demonstrated as follows: Where B is the Least Horizontal Dimension.    

How do I tell if my building is considered “enclosed”?

How do I tell if my building is considered an “open building”?

A building is considered open if each wall is at least 80 percent open (ASCE 7-10, Section 26.2, “BUILDING, OPEN”). This condition is expressed for each wall by the equation Ao ≥ 0.8 Ag where Ao = total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure, in ft2 (m2) Ag = the gross area of that wall in which Ao is identified, in ft2 (m2)   EXAMPLE: Open Building   However, a building that meets both the “open” and “partially enclosed” definitions should be considered “open” (ASCE 7-10, Section C26.2, “BUILDING, ENCLOSED; BUILDING OPEN; BUILDING PARTIALLY ENCLOSED”).   See also “Enclosed Building”  and “Partially Enclosed Building
 

How do I tell if my building/enclosure is considered “partially enclosed”?

A building is considered "Partially Enclosed” if it complies with both of the following conditions (ASCE 7-10, Section 26.2, “BUILDING, PARTIALLY ENCLOSED”):
  1. the total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure exceeds the sum of the areas of openings in the balance of the building envelope (walls and roof) by more than 10%, AND
  2. the total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure exceeds 4 ft2 (0.37 m2) or 1% of the area of that wall, whichever is smaller, and the percentage of openings in the balance of the building envelope does not exceed 20%
  IF EITHER IS NOT TRUE, THE ENCLOSURE BY DEFINITION IS NOT PARTIALLY ENCLOSED.   On occasion, building officials will assume a building originally designed as enclosed to be partially enclosed if storm shutters are not provided, which is a conservative worst-case approach, but is defendable by the fact that there is no written code provision for this and the structure won't meet the above definition. Also, everything needs to be designed for partially enclosed, roof, connections, walls, foundation, beams, columns, etc. A building won't stand if only 1 part of it is designed as partially enclosed and not the rest.   Another way to view the two conditions above is as expressed by the following equations:
  1. Ao > 1.10Aoi
  2. Ao > 4 ft2 (0.37 m2) or > 0.01Ag, whichever is smaller, and Aoi/Agi ≤ 0.20
  where Ao = total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure, in ft2 (m2) Ag = the gross area of that wall in which Ao is identified, in ft2 (m2) Aoi = the sum of the areas of openings in the building envelope (walls and roof) not including Ao, in ft2 (m2) Agi = the sum of the gross surface areas of the building envelope (walls and roof) not including Ag, in ft2 (m2)   EXAMPLE: Partially Enclosed   However, a building that meets both the “open” and “partially enclosed” definitions should be considered “open” (ASCE 7-10, Section C26.2, “BUILDING, ENCLOSED; BUILDING OPEN; BUILDING PARTIALLY ENCLOSED”).   See also "Enclosed Building" and "Open Building"
 

Mean Roof Height (ASCE 7)

Per ASCE 7, the Mean Roof Height (h) is defined as the average of the roof eave height and the height to the highest point on the roof surface, except that, for roof angles of less than or equal to 10°, the mean roof height is permitted to be taken as the roof eave height.   Visually, AAMA TIR A15-14 illustrates the mean roof height as per the image below, where h on the sloped roof is = (ridge height + eave height) /2   Eave height is the distance from the ground surface adjacent to the building to the roof eave line at a particular wall. If the height of the eave varies along the wall, the average height shall be used.   AAMA TIR A15-14 Mean Roof Height Figure   It is noted that the mean roof height affects only the negative components and cladding pressures of ASCE 7.  Positive wall pressures may use the elevation of the opening in question.   Our online components and cladding wind pressure calculator uses this mean roof height in calculating design pressures for building openings and is free to use.
 

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