Our interpretations of the many codes and standards in our engineering industry

Egress Emergency Escape Requirements for Windows

The International building code 2015/2018, Florida Building Code 2017,2020, and corresponding Residential Codes list the following in regards to egress as an emergency escape in regards to windows & doors leading out of a dwelling.  Please note that these may be paraphrased and are for general purposes only.  Consult the actual code for specific requirements. …

About AAMA 2100 and Sunroom Categories

Sunrooms across the US are categorized into 5 categories.  AAMA published these in their AAMA/NPEA/NSA 2100-12 publication which made its way into the Florida & International Building Codes.  FBC (17, 20) lists this in Chapter 20 section 2002.6 directly siting the AAMA/NPEA/NSA 2100 spec. IBC References AAMA 2100 in  IRC Chapter 44 Please refer to…

2020 FBC Product Evaluation Updates

There are many updates to the Florida Building Code 7th Edition (2020), but several of them directly impact structural building component product evaluations. Here’s a breakdown of whats changed and what to expect when updating your Florida Product Evaluation for the 2020 Florida Building Code: 1) ASCE 7-10 is now ASCE 7-16:  If your product…

Proof Florida Product Approvals and NOA’s Don’t Require The Original Engineering Seal

We frequently get asked to re-seal our product approvals after they have been approved by the state.  They are validated by comparing them to the state / county records on file and are NOT required to be signed and sealed. There are two Florida Declaratory Statements on record verifying this question: http://www.floridabuilding.org/Upload/FBC/CodeID_1812_DEC03-296.pdf Another Case is…

ASCE Risk Categories Explained

Background Building codes require that buildings be classified by their level of importance in determining the risk taken with safety factors against their failure under critical design loads. Calculations for the structure’s overall stability, flexure, and fatigue are all based on the assumption of a given risk category design level.  ASCE 7 references risk category…

Is A Top Rail Required For A Glass Railing?

Aesthetically pleasing, clean and one of the biggest architectural trends, the glass railing is fast gaining popularity as a g-to safeguard barrier for modern construction. It’s not only a widely used structural component for safeguard applications, but one with many variables and configurations that changes the way that they need to be analyzed in order…

Flood Engineering Glossary

FLOOD GLOSSARY The following is provided as a curated summary of terms taken from the referenced standards that appear in the article footing. NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM (NFIP) The Federal program, create by an act of Congress in 1968, that makes flood insurance available in communities that enact satisfactory floodplain management regulations.   FLOOD INSURANCE…

Flood Resistant Design & Floodproofing of Buildings

An engineer’s walk through of the design requirements for flood resistant design of building components With Engineering Express’s early start with floodproofing designs for floor barriers and exterior glazing in projects across the US, we quickly became experts in this field.  We’ve witnessed and directed static and dynamic flood testing, sat on industry meetings, met…

PRODUCT APPROVALS ARE NOT ALWAYS REQUIRED! HERE’S WHY:

HERE’S 3 MYTHS ABOUT PRODUCT APPROVALS:   Background: Product evaluations (sometimes called “product approvals”, “ICC reports”, NOA’s or similar) for building components are the general rule in the International Building Code.  Building officials, architects, insurance companies, third party reviewers, even homeowners ask for them all the time, frequently refusing permits, insurance discounts, and product installations.…

What are alteration levels in construction and how do they relate to delegate engineers?

  Alteration – Level 1 (Existing Building Code Section 503): Removal and replacement, or covering of existing materials, equipment, fixtures using new materials that serve the same purpose. Alteration –Level 1 does not include reconfiguration of space. Commentary:  Typically the component (delegate) engineer (such as Engineering Express® who are Building Component Design Engineers) serves as…

Is a large missile impact window or door automatically approved for small missile impact? (updated for 2020)

Overview (Update): Changes to the 2020 Florida Building Code for Porous Impact Protection Devices Porous Impact Protective Systems: ASTM E1996-12A brought a significant change to Porous Impact Protective Systems (PIPS). A Porous Impact Protective System is defined as “An assembly whose aggregate open area exceeds 10% of its projected surface area”. Prior to ASTM E1996-12A,…

2006/2012 IRC RAILING GUIDELINES

 The 2006/2012 International Residential Code (IRC) contains railing guidelines similar to those found in the Florida Building Code Fifth Edition (2014, 2017).  Below are the written regulations along with images displaying the code as it applies to its appropriate context. Helpful PDF also appears here:  http://timnath.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/2012-RESIDENTIAL-STAIR-GUIDE.pdf 2006 IRC R311.5.6 HANDRAILS (Height, Continuity, Grip Size) R311.5.6  (Handrails) …

Phantom Screens: Is a Florida Product Approval Required?

Product Approvals for building components are the general rule in Florida.  Building officials, architects, insurance companies, even homeowners ask for them all the time, frequently refusing permits, insurance discounts, and product installations. So what is the legal ruling on when and if product approvals are required for this product? The Florida Building Code requires only…

1 Hour Fire Rating For Roof vs Wall

Many ask if there’s a difference between a 1 hour fire rating on a wall product vs a 1 hour fire rating on a roof product. If you think about it, fire (AKA heat) does behave differently as it rises vs. spreads.  In fact, there is a difference: In the Florida Building Code (2014), Section 1505.1,…

When is a Fence or Railing 75% Open?

The Scenario The question comes up from time to time regarding requirements for a fence or railing to be 75% open (such as in the Lighthouse Point FL Building Code Amendments).  This is the case for example in Florida when overlooking the Intracoastal in Broward County.  This porosity also affects the design calculations for the…

About The UL 325 Safety Standard

The UL 325 is a safety standard for door, drapery, gate, louver, and window operators and systems. The standard was developed by underwriters laboratories Inc. in an open non-exclusionary process for manufacturers to use in designing products. This standard provides minimum requirements for the manufacture and installation of gate operators. It applies to electric operators…

About ASCE 7’s Directionality Factor Kd

The directionality factor (Kd) used in the ASCE 7 wind load provisions for components and cladding is a load reduction factor intended to take into account the less than 100% probability that the design event wind direction aligns with the worst case building aerodynamics.   Per ASCE 7-10,Section 26.6, the Directionality Factor Kd is defined…

ASCE 7 Wall and Roof Zones Explained

Per ASCE 7-10, buildings are composed of 5 different zones, depending on the wind loading they are subjected to. These zones are defined as follows: Zone 1: Has the lowest load; this zone accounts for approximately 80% of the roof surface, represented in the interior zones of the roof. Zone 2: Higher loading than Zone 1; this…

Mean Roof Height (ASCE 7)

Per ASCE 7, the Mean Roof Height (h) is defined as the average of the roof eave height and the height to the highest point on the roof surface, except that, for roof angles of less than or equal to 10°, the mean roof height is permitted to be taken as the roof eave height. Visually, AAMA TIR A15-14…

Steel Bolt Edge Distance Requirements

Per AISC-ANSI-360-10, the minimum edge distance for bolts is to follow the below table J3.4     https://www.scribd.com/doc/115942657/Minimum-Edge-Distance-Table-AISC-ANSI-360-10-Specifications-for-Structural-Steel-Buildings   or buy direct from AISC: https://www.aisc.org/store/p-1578-steel-construction-manual-14th-ed-fourth-printing-hardbound.aspx  

Metal Fasteners UNC vs Spaced Thread

Metal fastening is designed per the requirements of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC): Specification for Structural Steel Buildings in conjunction with the American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA): TIR-A9-14 Design Guide for Metal Cladding Fasteners.   The (2) most common types of fastener threads used in construction are Unified Coarse Thread (UNC) more commonly…

Can an engineer design alternate anchorage for a Florida product approval or other product evaluation?

According to Section 1710.8.4 of the Florida Building Code Fifth Edition (2014), “Opening protection components, fasteners, and other parts evaluated by an approved product evaluation entity, certification agency, testing laboratory, architect, or engineer and approved by the holder of the product approval may be interchangeable in opening protection assemblies provided that the opening protection component(s)…

How do I tell if my building is considered “enclosed”?

A building is considered “enclosed” if it does not comply with the requirements for open or partially enclosed buildings (ASCE 7-10, Section 26.2, “BUILDING, ENCLOSED”).   From the ASCE 7-05 Commentary   BUILDING, ENCLOSED, OPEN, PARTIALLY ENCLOSED: These definitions relate to the proper selection of internal pressure coefficients, GCpi . Building, open and building, partially enclosed are specifically…

How do I calculate the effective opening area on window or door products? – What opening area should be used for wind pressure determination on a multi-panel product?

The Building Codes in the US reference ASCE-7 for the design of the components and cladding of buildings (26.1.2.2 ASCE 7-(10)).  The theory of wind design goes that the smaller the area in consideration, the greater the probability that a maximum burst of wind will occur in that area over any 3 second period.  Wind…

ASTM E1996 Missile Levels and Definition

Missile Level E 6.2.1.1 Enhanced Protection (Essential Facilities): Buildings and other structures designated as essential facilities, including but not limited to hospitals, other health care facilities having emergency treatment facilities, jails and detention facilities, fire, rescue and police stations, and emergency vehicle garages, designated emergency shelters, communications centers and other facilities required for emergency response,…

The Recently Updated Saffir-Simpson Scale

First, it needs to be said that there is a complicated formula that converts wind velocity to wind pressure.  Many wind pressure values can exist from a single wind velocity which vary based on roof height, topography, terrain, even code version, and more.  See our wind speed to wind pressure calculators for different ASCE codes by…