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About ASTM E1996-17 Missile Levels

Overview As of the 2020 Florida Building Code & 2018 International Building Code, ASTM E1996-17 is the adopted reference standard.  The title is ‘Standard Specification for Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, Doors, & Impact Protective Systems Impacted by Windborne Debris in Hurricanes’. (Exterior garage doors & rolling doors are covered by ANSI/DASMA 115 & …

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The Updated Saffir-Simpson Scale

First, it needs to be said that there is a complicated formula that converts wind velocity to wind pressure.  Many wind pressure values can exist from a single wind velocity which vary based on roof height, topography, terrain, even code version, and more. The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale is a 1 to 5 rating based …

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ASCE 7 WIND EXPOSURE CATEGORIES AND HOW EXPOSURE ‘D’ WORKS

Risk Category Background Building codes require that buildings be classified by their level of importance in determining the risk taken with safety factors against their failure under critical design loads. Calculations for the structure’s overall stability, flexure, and fatigue are all based on the assumption of a given risk category design level.  ASCE 7 references …

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ASCE Wind Speed Risk Category To Use with Signs & Building Components On-Off Buildings

ASCE 7-10, ASCE 7-16 Wind Pressure Information and Wind Pressure Calculators In terms of determining the risk category to a building component mounted to a building, the component ‘inherits’ the design properties of the structure. So a sign attached to a risk category II structure would be risk category II. If the sign is freestanding …

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Glossary of Engineering Terms

GLOSSARY OF ENGINEERING TERMS These terms are published by Engineering Express to coincide with help menus for our online tools & published articles. See also our FLOOD ENGINEERING GLOSSARY for more terms related to flood engineering. LABEL GLOSSARY DESCRIPTION ADDITION ROOF TYPE For sunroom enclosures, roof types can be monoslope for studio, shed, or other …

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How do I tell if my building is considered “enclosed”?

A building is considered “enclosed” if it does not comply with the requirements for open or partially enclosed buildings (ASCE 7-16, Section 26.2, “BUILDING, ENCLOSED”). From the ASCE 7-16 Commentary C26.2 Definitions: BUILDING, ENCLOSED; BUILDING, OPEN; BUILDING, PARTIALLY ENCLOSED; BUILDING, PARTIALLY OPEN: These definitions relate to the proper selection of internal pressure coefficients, (GCpi). “Enclosed,” …

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How do I tell if my building/enclosure is considered “partially enclosed”?

A building is considered “Partially Enclosed” if it complies with both of the following conditions (ASCE 7-16, Section 26.2, “BUILDING, PARTIALLY ENCLOSED”): the total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure exceeds the sum of the areas of openings in the balance of the building envelope (walls and roof) by more …

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How do I calculate the effective opening area on window or door products? – What opening area should be used for wind pressure determination on a multi-panel product?

The Building Codes in the US reference ASCE-7 for the design of the components and cladding of buildings (26.1.2.2 ASCE 7-10 & ASCE 7-16).   Theory Of wind design goes that the smaller the area in consideration, the greater the probability that a maximum burst of wind will occur in that area over any 3 …

How do I calculate the effective opening area on window or door products? – What opening area should be used for wind pressure determination on a multi-panel product? Read More »

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